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Meritocracy (merit, from Latin mereō, and -cracy, from Ancient Greek κράτος "strength, power") is a political philosophy holding that power should be vested in individuals almost exclusively based on ability and talent. Advancement in such a system is based on performance measured through examination and/or demonstrated achievement in the field where it is implemented.

Meritocracy can also be a form of government based on technocracy, that selects both the politicians and the voters.